History : Nov-Dec 2016
8 NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2016 PROFILES she governed behind the scenes, her achievements were attributed to others, while her opponents cast her as a crafty, bloodthirsty conspirator. Manchu governors (who dominated the Han ethnic majority) were divided between those who opposed the West- erners and those who, like Cixi, wanted to modernize China to boost its economy in order to avoid total submission to the West, as well as Japan, which had become a serious threat to China. Cixi advocated westernization—but not completely. For example, she took nearly 20 years to allow the complete construction of a railroad because she did not want to disturb ancestral tombs that lay near the proposed line. She did not want to promote textile factories because they took work away from Chinese wom- en. She also knew there was much oppo- sition to reform among the people, from commoners to civil servants to nobles, who detested so-called barbarian West- ern customs. In spite of the criticism, Cixi man- aged to bring peace to the country, put public finances on a sound footing, built a navy, and encour- aged the country to open up to the world. With the help of the West- erners who commanded the army, the southern Taiping rebels were finally crushed. Officially, Cixi had to stand down when Tongzhi came of age in 1873. Two years into his rule, a bout with smallpox killed the young emperor, who left no heir. Some believed that JTB PHOTO/AGE FOTOSTOCK LA LOCURA DEL PODER BONIFACIO V. POR ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO. SIGLO XIII. PALACIO DEL VATICANO. PARA LOS ATENIEN de la época clásica, como expresa Jeno- fonte, la esposa ideal era la que había pasado toda su vida entrenamiento gimnástico de encerrada había aprendido a hilar y gobernar tanto, excluidas de la, reptamet fugit as- peles truntin nisto bearunturem velicipsam duciden color. THE QUEEN’S MAN EUNUCH’S ROBE FROM THE COURT OF CIXI IN IMPERIAL CHINA eunuchs were a ubiquitous presence in the Forbidden City and had been serving as guardians of the emperor’s inner court for more than 2,000 years. In Cixi’s time, one of the most influential eunuchs at court was Li Lianying, who was in charge of a staff of thousands: cooks, gardeners, servants, cleaners, painters, and other eunuchs. WERNER FORMAN/GTRES THE NEW SUMMER PALACE in Beijing was restored for Cixi in 1886. The former palace was destroyed in 1860 during the second Opium War.