History : May-Jun 2018
28 MAY/JUNE 2018 TERRANCE KLASSEN/AGE FOTOSTOCK WHAT PHILIP BUILT Philip constructed the circular Philippeion, above, in the great sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia to celebrate his 338 b.c. victory at Chaeronea, which brought the Greek mainland under the sway of Macedon. dealt with their own political challenges, Philip was using his military and diplomatic flair to make rapid conquests in the Thrace region. By 351 Athens started to recognize the threat from its upstart northern neighbor. But by then it was probably too late. Through his army’s use of a new phalanx formation and the long sa- rissa pike, Philip won the battle of Chaeronea in 338 to take control of mainland Greece, a con- quest that would play a key role in his son’s spectacular victory over the Persian Empire in the decade to come. It was, perhaps, inevi- table that warlike Philip, blind O vershadowed by his more famous son, Philip II of Macedon was an exceptional ruler in his own right. He remade his army into a formidable fighting machine to bring the whole Greek mainland under his control in the middle of the fourth century b.c. At the time of Philip’s accession in 359 b.c., Macedon was regarded by most Greeks as an only partially hellenized kingdom and somewhat peripheral to the Greek world. Philip came to the throne at a time of dynastic violence in Macedon, but as Athens and Thebes to the south A FATHER’S IMPERIAL LEGACY Philip II becomes king of the small kingdom of Macedon in northeast Greece. Having revitalized his army, with a new infantry formation (the phalanx) and arming them with the sarissa pike, Philip conquers mainland Greece by 338 b.c. Philip is murdered at his daughter’s wedding. Historians speculate whether it was a small act of revenge or part of a wider dynastic plot. Philip’s son, Alexander III, succeeds him and will later become famous as Alexander the Great. AURIMAGES PHILIP II OF MACEDON, CHIARAMONTI MUSEUM, VATICAN 359-338 b.c. 336 b.c.