History : Mar-Apr 2019
When the United States threw its might into the war, Spain was defeated, and its empire was no more. Spain would be riven by bloody revolution and political repression. Poet Antonio Machado, who belonged to a group of liberal artists and writers called the Generation of 1898—the year the Spanish- American War took place—spoke for the anguish of many in this verse: Miserable Castile, yesterday lording it over everybody, now wrapped in her rags scorns all she does not know. 1819 1822 1833-1876 1898 Led by Simón Bolívar, the short- lived Gran Colombia begins to break away from Spain. By 1830 Gran Colombia will split into what is now Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador. The United States recognizes Mexico, Chile, Peru, and the United Provinces of the River Plate (this later split to form parts of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Uruguay). Three civil wars further weaken Spain. Distracted by its domestic woes, Spain struggles to contain an independence movement in Cuba. Following a short war, Cuba is free of Spain; the United States takes possession of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. The Spanish Empire has ended. THE BACARDÍ RUM DISTILLERY WAS FOUNDED BY SPANIARD FACUNDO BACARDÍ IN SANTIAGO DE CUBA, CUBA, IN 1862. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS MARY EVANS/AGE FOTOSTOCK THELASTOF SPAIN Above, an 1899 map showing two of the dramatic conquests made by the United States the year before: Cuba (with insets showing its two principal cities, Havana and Santiago de Cuba) and Puerto Rico. U.S. forces then completed Spain’s humiliation by taking the Philippines.